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How does controller protect battery?

How does controller protect battery?


In full set of off grid or hybrid solar energy system, solar charge controllers protect batteries from being overcharged. A  solar charge controller manages the power going into the battery bank from the solar array.  It ensures that the deep cycle batteries are not overcharged during the day, and that the power doesn’t run backwards to the solar panels overnight and drain the batteries. The most important work of controller is managing the power.

Charge controller for PV (solar electric), wind and water powered systems perform the same function as a voltage regulator in an automobile. However a regulator from a car will not work in a remote power system due to a few differences. Advanced features found in most charge controllers are: low voltage disconnect (LVD), lighting controls, adjustable settings for different battery types, auto equalization, fusing, temperature compensation and reverse polarity protection. Some charge controller using pulse width modulation (PWM) model or MPPT model while others use simple on/off schemes.

Most systems have battery capacities more than or equal to 4 days of load requirements and are typical of many PV systems used for residential or outdoor lighting applications. The function of the charge controller(s) in these systems is to protect the batteries from overcharge or overdischarge.

There are MPPT and PWM solar charge controller in the market. According to statistics, MPPT is more popular. The traditional solar charging controller has its working parameters set. It uses the set parameters (either constant voltage or constant current) to transfer the power of the solar panel. It does not change according to the surrounding environment. Change; and the natural environment such as solar radiation, ambient temperature, and humidity are changing every moment; therefore, to convert the energy of solar panels in a fixed way, on the one hand, it is easy to cause the battery to be in a full state On the other hand, when the weather is good, solar panels cannot be fully utilized, causing waste.

PWM uses the digital output of the microprocessor to control the analog circuit. It adopts three-phase charging methods: strong charging, balanced charging, and floating charging. The PWM solar controller solves the problems of unsatisfactory battery charging and short battery life, but the solar panel is not fully utilized.

MPPT solar controller refers to a solar controller with "Maximum Power Point Tracking" function. MPPT solar controller can detect the voltage and current of the solar panel in real time and continuously track the maximum power (P = U * I) , Make the system always charge the battery with the maximum power, MPPT tracking efficiency is 99%, the entire system power generation efficiency is as high as 97%, and the battery charging phase is divided into MPPT charging, constant voltage equalization charging and constant voltage floating charging phase.

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